Martineau, Adrian

Adrian R Martineau

Title: Dr
Clinical Professor of Respiratory Infection and Immunity

Adrian's primary research interest is in the effects of vitamin D on human health, with a particular focus on respiratory infections. His work combines laboratory investigation of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system with a series of multi-centre clinical trials, investigating the potential role of vitamin D supplementation as an agent to prevent and treat tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other interests include the role of neutrophils in the immune response to tuberculosis, and the effects of vitamin D supplementation in a range of non-communicable diseases: he is clinical Chief Investigator for the Vitamin D and Longevity trial (VIDAL, a NIHR-funded study investigating effects of vitamin D supplementation on all-cause mortality in UK adults aged 65-84 years) and the ViDiKids trial (a MRC-funded study investigating whether vitamin D can prevent tuberculosis infection among primary schoolchildren in New Delhi, India).

Adrian has an active PhD programme and enquiries from prospective PhD or MD students interested in respiratory infection and / or vitamin D are welcome.

Trial co-ordinators:
Zuhur Balayah
Wai Yee James
Beverley MacLaughlin

Research Assistants:
Kamrul Islam
Kate Kilpin
Mital Patel
Dr Karolina Witt


Adrian gained a B Med Sci degree in Epidemiology and Public Health from Newcastle University in 1995, and graduated from Newcastle Medical School in the following year. He then gained a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from Liverpool University before working as a Medical Officer in South Africa. He returned to Liverpool to continue medical training in 1999, and became a member of the Royal College of Physicians in 2001. Adrian joined Queen Mary as a lecturer in Respiratory Medicine in 2002, and established a programme of laboratory and clinical research into the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D in tuberculosis. He received his PhD in 2010, and is currently conducting clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation to prevent exacerbations of asthma and COPD and all-cause mortality.


Vitamin D
Acute respiratory infection

Vindaloo trial

VIDAL trial


Key Publications

Coussens AK, Wilkinson RJ, Hanifa Y, Nikolayevskyy V, Elkington PT, Islam K, Timms PM, Venton TR, Bothamley GH, Packe GE, Darmalingam M, Davidson RN, Milburn HJ, Baker LV, Barker RD, Mein CA, Bhaw-Rosun L, Nuamah R, Young DB, Drobniewski FA, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR. Vitamin D accelerates resolution of inflammatory responses during tuberculosis treatment. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 2012 Sep 18;109(38):15449-54.

Martineau AR. Bolus-dose vitamin D to prevent infant pneumonia. Lancet 2012 Apr 14;379(9824):1373-5.

Lowe DM, Redford PS, Wilkinson RJ, O’Garra A, Martineau AR. Neutrophils and tuberculosis: a double-edged sword? Trends Immunol 2012;33(1):14-25

Martineau AR, Nhamoyebonde S, Oni T, Rangaka MX, Marais S, Bangani N, Tsekela R, Bashe L, de Azevedo V, Caldwell J, Venton TR, Timms PM, Wilkinson KA, Wilkinson RJ. Reciprocal seasonal variation in vitamin D status and tuberculosis notifications in Cape Town, South Africa. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 2011;108(47):19013-7

Martineau AR, Timms PM, Bothamley GH, Hanifa Y, Islam K, Claxton AP, Packe GE, Moore-Gillon JC, Darmalingam M, Davidson RN, Milburn HJ, Baker LV, Barker RD, Woodward NJ, Venton TR, Barnes KE, Mullett CJ, Coussens AK, Rutterford CM, Mein CA, Davies GR, Wilkinson RJ, Nikolayevskyy V, Drobniewski FA, Eldridge SM, Griffiths CJ. High-dose vitamin D3 during intensive phase treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2011;15:377:242-50

Martineau AR, Newton, SM, Wilkinson KA, Kampmann B, Hall BR, Nawroly N, Packe GE, Davidson RN, Griffiths CJ, Wilkinson RJ. Neutrophil-mediated innate immune resistance to mycobacteria. J Clin Invest 2007;117:1988-94

Martineau AR, Wilkinson KA, Newton SM, Norman AW, Packe GE, Skolimowska K, Davidson RN, Kampmann B, Griffiths CJ, Wilkinson RJ. Interferon gamma- and tumour necrosis factor-independent vitamin D-inducible human suppression of mycobacteria by cathelicidin LL-37. J Immunol 2007;178:7190–7198

Martineau AR, Wilkinson RJ, Wilkinson KA, Newton SM, Kampmann B, Hall BM, Packe GE, Davidson RN, Eldridge SM, Maunsell ZJ, Rainbow SJ, Berry JL, Griffiths CJ. A single dose of vitamin D enhances immunity to mycobacteria. Am. J Respir. Crit Care Med 2007;176:208-13

All publications from PubLists

(2014). Innate Resistance to Tuberculosis in Man, Cattle and Laboratory Animal Models: Nipping Disease in the Bud?. J Comp Pathol Vol., () -.
(2014). Design and analysis of clinical trials of nutrients: commentary.. Nutr Rev Vol.72, (5) 353-.
(2014). Maternal vitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.. Evid Based Med Vol.19, (1) e4-.
(2014). "Vitamin D and Human Health: from the Gamete to the Grave": Report on a meeting held at Queen Mary University of London, 23rd-25th April 2014.. Nutrients Vol.6, (7) 2759-2919.
(2014). Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Actions of Vitamin D in Combating TB/HIV.. Scientifica (Cairo) Vol.2014, () 903680-.
(2014). The effects of calcitriol treatment in glucocorticoid-resistant asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Vol., () 0091-6749 -.
(2013). Neutrophilia independently predicts death in tuberculosis.. Eur Respir J Vol.42, (6) 1752-1757.
(2013). Enhanced production of IL-17A in patients with severe asthma is inhibited by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in a glucocorticoid-independent fashion.. J Allergy Clin Immunol Vol.132, (2) 297-304.e3.
(2013). Vitamin D in the prevention of acute respiratory infection: systematic review of clinical studies.. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol Vol.136, () 321-329.
(2013). Longitudinal study of vitamin D metabolites after long bone fracture.. J Bone Miner Res Vol.28, (6) 1301-1307.
(2013). Vitamin D to prevent acute lung injury following oesophagectomy (VINDALOO): study protocol for a randomised placebo controlled trial. TRIALS Vol.14, () 1745-6215 -.
(2013). Genetic variants modifying the influence of vitamin D.. JAMA Vol.309, (9) 872-873.
(2013). A novel assay of antimycobacterial activity and phagocytosis by human neutrophils.. Tuberculosis (Edinb) Vol.93, (2) 167-178.
(2013). Vitamin D: an adjunct to antiretroviral therapy?. J Infect Dis Vol.207, (3) 373-375.
(2013). DHCR7 mutations linked to higher vitamin D status allowed early human migration to northern latitudes.. BMC Evol Biol Vol.13, () 144-.
(2013). Does vitamin D supplementation impact plasma cathelicidin, human beta defensin 2 and intestinal permeability in stable Crohn's disease? - Results from a randomised, double blind placebo controlled study. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY Vol.72, (OCE3) 0029-6651 E176-E176.
(2013). Ethnic variation in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis.. PLoS Pathog Vol.9, (7) e1003468-.
(2013). Prenatal vitamin d supplementation and child respiratory health: a randomised controlled trial.. PLoS One Vol.8, (6) e66627-.
(2013). The effects of vitamin D₂ or D₃ supplementation on glycaemic control and related metabolic parameters in people at risk of type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.. BMC Public Health Vol.13, () 999-.
(2012). Reply to Grey and Bolland: Findings of prespecified per-protocol analysis are valid. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Vol.109, (51) 0027-8424 E3529-E3529.
(2012). Vitamin D accelerates resolution of inflammatory responses during tuberculosis treatment.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Vol.109, (38) 15449-15454.
(2012). Serum 25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels correlate with CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T-cell numbers in moderate/severe asthma. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Vol.130, (2) 0091-6749 542-544.
(2012). Bolus-dose vitamin D and prevention of childhood pneumonia.. Lancet Vol.379, (9824) 1373-1375.
(2012). Inadequate vitamin D status in pregnancy: evidence for supplementation.. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Vol.91, (2) 159-163.
(2012). Old wine in new bottles: vitamin D in the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis.. Proc Nutr Soc Vol.71, (1) 84-89.
(2012). Vitamin D and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Justified Optimism or False Hope?. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Vol.185, (3) 1073-449X 239-241.
(2012). Corticosteroid Therapy, Vitamin D Status, and Inflammatory Cytokine Profile in the HIV-Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome. Clin Infect Dis Vol.55, (7) 1537-6591 1004-1011.
(2012). Neutrophils in tuberculosis: friend or foe?. Trends Immunol Vol.33, (1) 14-25.
(2012). Serum cathelicidin level is associated with viral etiology and severity of bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol Vol.130, (4) 1097-6825 -.
(2012). Severe hypercalcaemia following vitamin D replacement for tuberculosis-associated hypovitaminosis D. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG DISEASE Vol.16, (1) 1027-3719 140-140.
(2012). The effect of tenofovir on vitamin D metabolism in HIV-infected adults is dependent on sex and ethnicity.. PLoS One Vol.7, (9) e44845-.
(2011). Vitamin D and tuberculosis. Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews Vol.7, (6) 435-439.
(2011). Reciprocal seasonal variation in vitamin D status and tuberculosis notifications in Cape Town, South Africa.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Vol.108, (47) 19013-19017.
(2011). Nutritional status and vitamin D-3 during antimicrobial treatment Reply. LANCET Vol.377, (9775) 0140-6736 1408-1408.
(2011). High-dose vitamin D(3) during intensive-phase antimicrobial treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.. Lancet Vol.377, (9761) 242-250.
(2011). A functional whole blood assay to measure viability of mycobacteria, using reporter-gene tagged BCG or M.Tb (BCGlux/M.Tb lux).. J Vis Exp Vol., (55) -.
(2011). Vitamin D and Respiratory Health. Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews Vol.7, (6) 394-395.
(2010). Vitamin D-binding protein directs monocyte responses to 25-hydroxy- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.. J Clin Endocrinol Metab Vol.95, (7) 3368-3376.
(2010). Association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB is dependent on vitamin D status.. Eur Respir J Vol.35, (5) 1106-1112.
(2009). 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 inhibits matrix metalloproteinases induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. IMMUNOLOGY Vol.127, (4) 0019-2805 539-548.
(2009). Improved Vitamin D Status Despite Allocation to Placebo in a Tuberculosis Treatment Trial: Contamination Bias?. AM J RESP CRIT CARE Vol.180, (2) 1073-449X 189-189.
(2009). Genetic determination of the effect of post-translational modification on the innate immune response to the 19 kDa lipoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BMC MICROBIOL Vol.9, () 1471-2180 -.
(2009). Influence of a single oral dose of vitamin D(2) on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in tuberculosis patients.. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis Vol.13, (1) 1027-3719 119-125.
(2008). Neutrophil-mediated innate immune resistance to mycobacteria. J INFECTION Vol.56, (4) 0163-4453 301-302.
(2008). Vitamin D and tuberculosis incidence in Spain. AM J RESP CRIT CARE Vol.177, (7) 1073-449X 799-799.
(2008). Reduction of chemokine secretion in response to mycobacteria in infliximab-treated patients. CLIN VACCINE IMMUNOL Vol.15, (3) 1556-6811 506-512.
(2007). A single dose of vitamin D enhances immunity to mycobacteria.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol.176, (2) 1073-449X 208-213.
(2007). Neutrophil-mediated innate immune resistance to mycobacteria. J CLIN INVEST Vol.117, (7) 0021-9738 1988-1994.
(2007). IFN-gamma- and TNF-independent vitamin D-inducible human suppression of mycobacteria: The role of cathelicidin LL-37. J IMMUNOL Vol.178, (11) 0022-1767 7190-7198.
(2007). Educational outreach to promote screening for tuberculosis in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial.. Lancet Vol.369, (9572) 1528-1534.
(2007). The new tuberculosis - Raised awareness of tuberculosis is vital in general practice. BRIT J GEN PRACT Vol.57, (535) 0960-1643 94-95.
(2006). A deletion defining a common Asian lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis associates with immune subversion. P NATL ACAD SCI USA Vol.103, (42) 0027-8424 15594-15598.
(2004). Decreasing tuberculosis case fatality in England and Wales, 1988-2001.. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis Vol.8, (6) 1027-3719 737-742.
(2004). Gamma interferon-based Immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis: Comparison between whole-blood and enzyme-linked immunospot methods. J CLIN MICROBIOL Vol.42, (2) 0095-1137 829-831.


Ad hoc postgraduate teaching

Undergraduate teaching (PBL and OSCEs)

Topics for PhD supervision:
Respiratory infection
Vitamin D

PhD Students:

David Jolliffe

Further information

ARREST trial
I chair the steering committee for the ARREST trial (Multicentre trial of adjunctive rifampicin to reduce early mortality from Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia).

Vitamin D Podcast, Wellcome Collection

BBC Radio 4 'Case Notes' on vitamin D

BBC Radio 4 'Inside Health' on vitamin D and TB

New York Times on vitamin D and TB

'Vitamin D on Trial' in Science


Room 2.16, Yvonne Carter Building
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
Yvonne Carter Building
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